The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest and smallest of the world’s five major oceans.
The Arctic Ocean covers less than 3% of the Earth’s surface.
The Arctic Oceans has freezing temperatures as it lies at the extreme Polar Region, although the temperature differs between day and night.
At night it is a lot more cooler than it is at daytime. Mostly you would find temperatures around -2 degrees Celsius or 28 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer. In the winter, the temperature ranges from -30 to -35 degrees Celsius.
The Arctic Ocean gets it name from the word “arktos”, which means “bear” in Greek.
The Arctic Ocean is split into two major ridges, Eurasian Ridge and North American Ridge.
The length of the Arctic coastline is around 45,500 km or 25,200 miles.
The deepest part of the Arctic Ocean is called The Litke Deep, at 17,880 feet below sea level.
The area covered by the Arctic Ocean is 14 million sq km, or 5.4 million sq miles.
The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 990 meters or 3,248 feet.
The Arctic Ocean is located in the extreme North Polar Region. It is almost in a circular shape, with the North Pole just about at its center.
The Arctic Ocean touches three continents, North America, Asia and Europe.
The countries to border the Arctic Ocean include, Canada, Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland and the United States.
Some of the well know islands in the Arctic Ocean include, Greenland Island, Hyde Parker Island, Crescent Island, Shoe Island, Monumental Island and Hudson Island.
The first person to cross the Arctic Ocean by boat was Fridtjof Nansen in 1896.
In 1969, Wally Herbert led the first surface crossing of the ocean with a dog sled expedition, from Alaska to Svalbard.
The Arctic Ocean has many natural resources including petroleum, natural gas fields, placer deposits, sand and gravel, fish, seals and whales.
Since 1937, Russian manned drifting ice stations have been monitoring the Arctic Ocean.
Because the Arctic Ocean may hold 25% or more of the world’s undiscovered oil and gas resources, it has led to a dispute between the United States, Russia, Canada, Norway and Denmark.
Much of the Arctic Ocean is covered in ice, however the thickness of the ice varies on what time of season it is. The ice thickens in April and becomes relatively thinner in September.
Icebergs and Ice packs will be found in the Arctic Ocean during any season, however, because of the increasing temperatures of the ocean waters due to global warming, more ice packs and icebergs are melting during the summer, and less water is freezing in winter every year.
Icebergs in the Arctic Ocean, occasionally break away from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada, posing a hazard to ships. The Titanic is the most famous one of all.
In the Arctic Ocean, the sea freezes where it is in contact with the extremely cold air. This ice floats at its surface instead of sinking to the ocean floor, because although it is colder than water, it is less dense. It can cover large area of the ocean.
The speed at which the ice drifts is estimated at 1 to 4 cm per second.
When summer arrives in the Arctic Ocean, it brings almost constant daylight, warming the ground. The surface layers of ice thaw out and trigger an explosion of marine life.
Polar bears live and hunt on the ice of the Arctic Ocean, and live only in this landscape.
The Arctic Ocean is an unlikely home of many different creatures, apart from whales, seals and walruses you also find arctic wolves, arctic foxes, murres prosper, brown bears and polar bears.
Endangered marine species in the Arctic Ocean include walruses and whales.
In the Arctic Ocean, there are four different type of whale species including the grey whale, beluga whale, narwhal whale and the bowhead whale.