- OFFICIAL NAME = UNITED MEXICAN STATES
- NATIONALITY = MEXICAN(S)
- CAPITAL = MEXICO CITY
- LOCATION = BOTH THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN HEMISPHERES
- CONTINENT = NORTH AMERICA
- POPULATION = 130,759,074 MILLION
- OFFICIAL LANGUAGE = SPANISH (NAHUATI)
- AREA = 1,964,375 SQ KM (733,594 SQ MILES)
- CURRENCY = MEXICAN PESOS
- HIGHEST POINT = PICO DE ORIZABA: 5,636 METERS (18,491 FEET)
- MAJOR MOUNTAINS = SIERRA MADRE OCIDENTAL
- MAJOR RIVERS = COLORADO AND THE RIO GRANDE
- CLIMATE = MOSTLY HOT AND HUMID
- CALLING CODE = 011+52+NUMBER
- DRIVES ON = RIGHT HAND SIDE OF THE ROAD
- INDEPENDENCE = SEPTEMBER 16th, 1810 (FROM SPAIN)
- NATIONAL HOLIDAY = INDEPENDENCE DAY: SEPTEMBER 16TH.
- GOVERNMENT = DEMOCRACY, REPUBLIC
- RELIGION = MAINLY ROMAN CATHOLIC (90%)
- NATIONAL SPORT = CHARRERIA (RODEO) AND FOOTBALL
- NATIONAL SYMBOLS = FLAG, COAT OF ARMS AND THE NATIONAL ANTHEM
- MAJOR INDUSTRIES = FOOD, TOBACCO, CHEMICALS, IRON AND STEEL, PETROLEUM, MOTOR VEHICLES AND TOURISM
- NATURAL RESOURCES = GOLD, SILVER, LEAD, COPPER, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
- AGRICULTURE = CORN, SUGARCANE, WHEAT, TOMATOES, BANANAS, ORANGES, LEMONS, BARLEY AND COFFEE
BRIEF HISTORY OF MEXICO !!!
For over 3000 years, present-day Mexico was the home to many different civilizations until the Europeans arrived on their shores.
The Aztecs were the inhabitants of the region when Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived at Veracruz in 1519.
In May 1521, Hernán Cortés and his forces attacked and conquered the Aztecs. Cortés then colonized the area and named it New Spain.
Between 1521 and 1605, it is estimated that nearly 24 million Aztecs died from hardship and infectious diseases that was brought over by the Europeans, such as smallpox, to which they had no immunity.
For 300 years, Mexico, then known as New Spain, was ruled as a Spanish colony.
The French Revolution (1789-1799) and the American War of Independence (1775-1783) coincided with the decline of power the Spanish held over Mexico.
In the early 1800s, Mexico along with other Spanish colonies in the New World revolted against Spanish rule.
The Mexican War of Independence officially began on the 16th of September, 1810, when a priest called Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla sounds the “Grito de Dolores,” (The Cry of Dolores).
This day, September 16th, is now celebrated as Mexico’s Independence Day.
The “Cry of Dolores” is when Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the parish priest of Dolores, rang his church bell and gave the call for the end of Spanish rule, for racial equality and for the redistribution of land.
Hidalgo and his 80,000 strong rebel army first captured the city of Guanajuato. More soon followed, before they came close to taking Mexico City. Soon thereafter he went north in hope of engaging U.S. support, but he was captured and executed by firing squad on July 31st, 1811.
It took ten more years of war until Mexico finally won independence from Spain, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba on August 24th, 1821.
However, Hidalgo is credited as being the “father of his country”.
SHORT FACTS ON MEXICO !!!
Mexico was giving its name from the Aztec’s war god, Mexitli.
Before the first Europeans arrived on the shores of Mexico in 1519, it was home to many great civilizations including the Olmec, Maya, Teotihuacan, Toltec, and the Aztec.
When the Spanish conquered the Aztecs in 1521, they only had about 600 men, but they had horses, steel armor, and weapons, which the Aztecs had never seen before.
The official name for Mexico is the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos).
There are 31 states in Mexico as well as the capital city, Mexico City.
Mexico has land borders with the United States to the north and Belize and Guatemala to the south.
Mexico is bounded to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
Mexico has 9,330 kilometers of coastline.
Mexico’s flag is comprised of three vertical colored stripes, green, white and red. Green stands for hope, white represents purity and the red stripe stands for the blood of the people who died when fighting for Mexico’s independence.
The Mexican people who rose up against the Spanish for independence, on September 16th, 1810, was led by a priest called Father Miguel Hidalgo . By 1811, he was caught, expelled from the priesthood, and executed by a Spanish firing squad as a rebel. Nowadays in Mexico he is remembered as the Father of his Country.
Mexico is the 14th largest country in the world by land area.
A national symbol of Mexico is the golden eagle.
Mexico has more Spanish-talking people than Spain.
The chihuahua is the world’s smallest dog and its name is giving to a state in Mexico.
The Mexican border it shares with the USA is the second largest border in the world. The largest border is shared between Canada and the USA.
Mexico City is built on a lake called Texcoco, which is sinking bit by bit. Scientists reckon it has sunk more than 9 meters in some areas over the last 100 years, due to the city’s growing population.
More than 20 million people live in Mexico City today, compared to the year 1900, when only 500,000 people called it their home.
Over 50% of the population of Mexico is under the age of 18.
Mexico City is the eight richest city in the world and is home to the richest man in the world, Carlos Slim.
The northern part of Mexico is a desert, while the southern part is a tropical rainforest, so most people live in the middle of the country.
The Lacandon Jungle is an area which stretches over 10,700 acres along the Guatemalan border. The jungle is known for the amazing diversity of its flora and fauna, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and the incredible ruins from the Mayan Civilization. It is also home to the Lacandon indigenous tribe.
Between 25-30% of Mexico is made up of forest land.
Wildlife found in Mexico include, opossums, manatees, sloths, tamanduas, armadillos, howler and spider monkeys, pacas, porcupines, chipmunks, beavers, tapirs, shrews, whales and dolphins.
The Mexican gray wolf is one of the rarest and most endangered mammals on the continent, with only a few dozen surviving in the wild.
The highest mountain in Mexico is a dormant Volcano called Pico De Orizaba. It reaches 5,636 meters (18,491 feet) above sea level.
Mexico has the world’s three longest underwater caves.
Mexico is situated in the “Ring of Fire” which is one of the Earth’s most violent Volcano and Earthquake zones.
The climate of Mexico is tropical with a rainy and dry season, with little temperature fluctuation from season to season.
Mexico is the 7th most visited country in the world by tourists. In 2019, the Latin American country welcomed over 49 million tourists.
Since 1991, the government in Mexico has undertook a number of major steps to reduce the air pollution in Mexico City, which has seen led levels drop by 95%, sulphur dioxide levels fall by 86%, carbon monoxide fall by 74%, while ozone levels have been reduced by 57%.
The colored TV was invented by a Mexican man called Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena in 1942.
Although the national sport of Mexico is equestrian events (rodeo), their most popular sport is football.
Mexico has hosted the Football world cup finals on two occasions, in 1970 and 1986.
Mexico hosted the Summer Olympic games in 1968.
A pinata is commonly associated with Mexico. It’s a big, bright clay or paper-mache figure, filled with toys and sweets that is hung up on a big string and your kids takes turns whacking it with a big stick , until all the treats fall out. A popular birthday game in Mexico.
Mexico is known for its food and drink culture. They include tacos, tortillas, burritos, tequila and also for being the origin of chocolate.
Mexico’s drug cartels claims thousands of lives every year. They control vast areas of the country and are responsible for kidnappings, assassinations and political corruption. Only recently, the U.S government has described the Sinaloa Cartel as one of the largest drug-trafficking organizations in the world.
It is considered rude to stand around with your hand in your pockets in Mexico.
Family is one of the most important elements in Mexican society. They are very conscious of their responsibilities to immediate family members and extended family, and even close friends.
Sombrero is a traditional Mexican straw hat, that is sometimes worn by Mexican men and women during celebrations.